Objectives. To test whether text message reminders sent to caregivers improve the effectiveness of a home micronutrient fortification program in western China.Methods. We carried out a cluster-randomized controlled trial in 351 villages (clusters) in Shaanxi Province in 2013 and 2014, enrolling children aged 6 to 12 months. We randomly assigned each village to 1 of 3 groups: free delivery group, text messaging group, or control group. We collected information on compliance with treatments and hemoglobin concentrations from all children at baseline and 6-month follow-up. We estimated the intent-to-treat effects on compliance and child anemia using a logistic regression model.Results. There were 1393 eligible children. We found that assignment to the text messaging group led to an increase in full compliance (marginal effect,=,0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI],=,0.03, 0.16) compared with the free delivery group and decrease in the rate of anemia at end line relative to the control group (marginal effect,=,-0.07; 95% CI,=,-0.12, -0.01), but not relative to the free delivery group (marginal effect,=,-0.03; 95% CI,=,-0.09, 0.03).Conclusions. Text messages improved compliance of caregivers to a home fortification program and children’s nutrition.